Disaster Planning for Genealogists Part 4: Share and Update Files

firefighter_run_300_clr_11079This post wraps up our four-week series on disaster planning for genealogists in honor of National Preparedness Month in the United States. In previous weeks, I talked about assessing our collections of family history artifacts and research materials; creating duplicates of one-of-a kind items; and protecting our most valuable items properly.

Last but certainly not least in our preparedness process, we want to share what we have with others and keep our digital files fresh. I’ll cover both of these steps in this post.

SHARE! First, after you’ve copied, scanned or photographed your family archive, spread your digital archive around by sharing it with others. If you leave all your files on the computer in the same building as your originals (your home), one house fire or theft could easily take out both your original and your carefully-made backups. Instead, disseminate your copies to at least two additional physical locations.

For electronic data, I recommend cloud storage like Dropbox, or iCloud. That immediately gets a copy away from your physical home base, but keeps it accessible to you (and others, if you like) from any location, computer or mobile device. Also consider distributing copies to fellow relatives or your genealogy buddies, the first because they should have family information anyway and the second because your genealogy buddies will likely take good care of your files. Just make sure those who receive your files don’t all live in the same general area, or again, the same typhoon may destroy all your copies. And check your CDs and cloud storage periodically to make sure the files are still in good shape.

UPDATE. Finally, every once in a while you’ll need to update your copies. It may sound unthinkable that someday your PDFs or JPGs won’t be readable, or that your computer won’t have a CD drive. But file formats do eventually become obsolete and storage media do decay and corrupt over time. Keep listening to the Genealogy Gems podcast so you’ll be aware when major transitions in technology happen. I’ll tell you how and when to update specific file formats and storage types that are starting to phase out.

I almost forgot–the last and best step in all emergency planning. When you’ve done everything you can to protect your family legacy from disaster, breathe a deep sigh of relief. The peace of mind alone is worth all this effort!

Read more

Premium Episode 145

Lisa Louise Cooke Genealogy Gems Family History PodcastGenealogy Gems Premium Podcast
Episode #145
with Lisa Louise Cooke

Download the show notes

In this episode:

  • A new Premium member shares her family disaster stories (TWO in the same family!) in response to Sunny Morton’s Johnstown Flood story.
  • The Genealogy Gems Book Club interview with international best-selling novelist Annie Barrows, talking about The Truth According to Us, and how we all must make sense of what’s true in the past.
  • Your DNA Guide Diahan Southard shares a great case study about mixing autosomal and mtDNA information to solve family mysteries.
  • Lisa introduces a museum curator who has done some great genealogical sleuthing to tell the stories of Texan family heirlooms now on display.
  • Lisa weaves in her own tech tips, research strategies and web resources that will help you be a more thorough and efficient genealogist, including Google (and more) for researching major disasters online and how to create your own Google Books cloud library.


Q&A with Shawn Carlson, Curator of Collections and Exhibits, Star of the Republic Museum, who discusses the new exhibit, “Heirloom Genealogy: Tracing Your Family Treasures,” open now through February 2018.



“One of the artifacts I researched was a red-on-white appliqué quilt. It was made in 1805 in Vermont and donated by the quilt-maker’s 3x great granddaughter who lived in Houston.

It should have been easy to figure out the lineage by the inscription on the quilt—but it wasn’t. There were two Cynthia Tuckers and two Pearl Browns in the family and one quilt owner had been married a couple of times and used a nickname. So it took a bit of sorting out. The research was all done using census data, but it all came back to the inscription on the quilt for final verification.”

A CHILD’S SUIT:buckskin suit

“Another item in our collection is a small buckskin suit that belonged to a little boy named Edward Clark Boylan. He was born in New Orleans in 1840 and died three years later near Galveston, probably from yellow fever. We knew his birth and death dates from his sister’s descendant who donated the suit, but not much else. I found some cryptic notes in our files taken by a previous curator and was able to trace Edward to Captain James Boylan who was captain of the ship Brutus during the Texas Revolution.

I found a passenger list from 1839 with Captain Boylan, his wife, and daughter traveling from Puerto Rico to New York. Mrs. Boylan would have been pregnant with Edward during that voyage. The year that Edward died, his father was mentioned frequently in the newspapers as he led a flotilla of ships out of Campeche. He was probably not present when little Edward died.”


slave birth record“One of the most interesting items we’ve received in recent years is a slave birth record that was part of a family collection. The donor’s ancestors were early settlers of Washington County. The slave record was interesting because it listed birth dates from 1832 to 1865. Out of curiosity, I tried tracking some of the slaves to see if I could find living descendants. I started with the 1870 census—looking for African Americans with the surname of the plantation owner and first names that matched the slaves in the birth record. I was able to follow through on one of the names to find a living descendant. She and her family came to visit the museum and see the birth record of their ancestor. While the family was visiting, during last year’s Texas Independence Day celebration, the donor of the slave record also visited the museum and the two families were able to meet.”


“Learn about the artifacts you have and match them to their owners. There is plenty of information online that will help you identify and date artifacts. Knowing the date of an artifact helps you determine who had it in the past.” -Shawn Carlson


Premium Podcast episode 143 (in which Gems editor Sunny Morton talks about the Johnstown flood of 1889)

Natalie’s article in the Bugle on her relative in the Eastland disaster (story starts on page 5)

View of Eastland taken from Fire Tug in river, showing the hull resting on its side on the river bottom. Wikimedia Commons image; click on image to view with full citation.

Blog post: Chilling historical video footage found

Lisa’s 5 steps for researching a historical disaster online:

1. Start with Google searches

Eastland Disaster Historical Society website

2. Dig deeper with Google Books (See step-by-step below for searching for free e-books)

American Red Cross final report on disaster relief aid

3. Set up Google Alerts so you don’t miss new information as it comes online

How to set up Google Alerts

How to get the most out of your Google Alerts for genealogy

4. Search YouTube separately

Chicago Tribune video documentary:

Eastland Disaster Historical Society animated re-creation of disaster:

5. Explore Gendisasters.com.


After performing a search in Google Books:

1. Click Tools under the search box.

2. Under the “Any books” dropdown menu, choose Free Google eBooks.

Watch a free video tutorial on finding free e-books on Google:

Periodical Source Citation Index (PERSI) for searching for articles in historical and genealogical magazines and journals: Click here to learn more about it


1. Open your web browser and log in to your Google account.

2. Go to play.google.com/books.

3. Click Upload files.

4. Select files from your computer folders or drag them into the box. (Click on My Drive to select files from Google Drive.) You can choose epub documents or PDFs.

Good to know:

  • It may take a minute or two to upload an entire book, and you may or may not get a pretty picture of the cover.
  • You can’t yet search within books you upload, just with books you purchase from Google. You can’t tag them or organize them into libraries yet.
  • You can upload 1000 books into your Google Books cloud-based library. These are only visible to you with your login; you’re not sharing them with the world.

Available as e-books in the Genealogy Gems store:


Visit the Genealogy Gems Book Club webpage to see more books we love!

Book Club update: Everyone Brave is Forgiven by Chris Cleave, a former Genealogy Gems Book Club featured title, is now available in paperback at a very reasonable price!


My family recently visited the Jelly Belly Factory in northern California. Of course at the end of the tour they funnel you into their gift shop where you feel compelled to buy jelly beans and other sundry treats. My favorite part of the big box we bought were the recipes on the side to turn the already delicious variety of flavors into even more pallet-pleasing options.

This got me thinking about DNA, of course!

Specifically, I was thinking about the power of combining multiple test types to get a better picture of your overall genealogical relationship to someone else.

If you will recall, there are three kinds of DNA tests available for genealogists: autosomal DNA, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y chromosome DNA (YDNA). Much of the focus these days is on how to use the autosomal DNA in our family history research. I guess this is because the autosomal DNA covers both sides of your family tree, so it is seen as a catchall for our family history. While it is a very powerful tool for our research, it can also be a bit overwhelming to try to determine how you are related to someone else.

Let’s look at an example from my own family history. My mom matched with Tom at 23andMe. Their predicted genealogical relationship, based on how much DNA they shared, was second cousins. To begin we need to understand which ancestor could be shared by people who are genetic second cousins. To figure it out, you can count backwards, like this: people who share parents are siblings, sharing grandparents makes you first cousins, while sharing great-grandparents makes you second cousins. So if my mom and Tom are true second cousins (meaning there aren’t any of those once-removed situations going on- but that’s a subject for another time), then we should be able to find their common ancestor among their great-grandparents. Each of us has eight great-grandparents.

Because we can’t usually narrow down shared DNA to a single person, but rather to an ancestral couple, we are really just looking at four possible ancestral couple connections between my mom and Tom. My mom doesn’t have any known ancestors, as she was adopted, so we can only evaluate Tom’s line. Tom was kind enough to share his pedigree chart with us, and he had all four of his couples listed. But how do we know which one is the shared couple with my mom?

Now, for those of you without an adoption, you will have some other clues to help you figure out which of the four (or eight, if you are looking at a third cousin, or 16 if you are looking at a fourth cousin) ancestral couples is shared between you and your match. Start by looking for shared surnames. If that comes up short, evaluate each couple by location. If you see an ancestral couple who is in a similar location to your line, then that couple becomes your most likely connecting point. What then? Do genealogy!! Find out everything you can about that couple and their descendants to see if you can connect that line to your own.

However in my mom’s case, we didn’t have any surnames or locations to narrow down which ancestral couple was the connection point between our line and Tom’s. But even if we had locations, that may not have helped as Tom is very homogenous! (All of his ancestors were from the same place.) But we did have one very important clue: the mitochondrial DNA, which is partially evaluated by 23andMe. Remember mtDNA traces a direct maternal line. So my mom’s mtDNA is the same as her mom’s, which is the same as her mom’s etc.

At 23andMe they don’t test the full mitochondrial DNA sequence (FMS) like they do at Family Tree DNA. For family history purposes, you really want the FMS to help you narrow down your maternal line connection to others. But 23andMe does provide your haplogroup, or deep ancestral group. These groups are named with a letter/number combination. My mom is W1.

We noticed that Tom is also W1.

This meant that my mom and Tom share a direct maternal line – or put another way, Tom’s mother’s mother’s mother was the same as my mom’s mother’s mother’s mother. That means that there is only one couple out of the four possible couples that could connect my mom to Tom: his direct maternal line ancestor Marianna Huck, and her husband Michael Wetzstien.

Now you can only perform this wondrous feat if you and your match have both tested at 23andMe, or have both taken the mtDNA test at Family Tree DNA.

Just as a Popcorn Jelly Belly plus two Blueberry Jelly Bellies makes a blueberry muffin, combining your autosomal DNA test results with your mtDNA test results (or YDNA for that matter) can yield some interesting connections that just might break down that family history brick wall.

Guides to help you do these tests:

PROFILE AMERICA: Voter Registration


Lisa Louise Cooke, Host and Producer
Sunny Morton, Editor
Diahan Southard, Your DNA Guide, Content Contributor
Lacey Cooke, Happiness Manager
Vienna Thomas, Associate Producer
Hannah Fullerton, Production Support

Read more

Disaster Planning for Genealogists and More: New FTM Podcast

FTM podcast logoAutumn gives me the urge to organize and prepare for the future. That’s why I think the new Family Tree Magazine podcast episode is especially timely.

Lisa hosts the September 2014 Family Tree Magazine podcast with these highlights:

  • News from the Blogosphere with Diane Haddad;
  • Preservation tips from the Family Archivist columnist, Denise Levenick;
  • Digital archiving websites from the current 101 Best Websites list;
  • Genealogy estate planning with Family Tree University dean Tyler Moss;
  • and roundup preparedness tips from Publisher Allison Dolan.

For more on disaster planning for genealogists, check out our four-part blog post series on it. Click here for the first one.

Read more

How Genealogists Can Prep for the 1940 Census Release 7/20/11

Genealogy records are about to expand online.  It’s still about 9 months away, but in the time it takes to bring a new descendant into the world the National Archives will be delivering the 1940 US Population Schedules to the public. There are a couple of guys who have been on the forefront of this event: none other than Steve Morse and Joel Weintraub. (You’ll remember hearing from Joel from his past appearance on the Genealogy Gems Premium Podcast.)

Of course family historians are chomping at the bit to dig into the 1940 census even though there won’t be an index when it’s first released. However, the guys have put out a press release about what you can do now to get ready to search:

“It will not be name indexed, so it will be necessary to do an address search in order to find families. Address searching involves knowing the ED (enumeration district) in which the address is located.. The National Archives (NARA) earlier this year indicated they had plans to make available in 2011 the 1940 ED maps of cities and counties, and ED descriptions, but their recent move to consider having a 3rd party host all the images may have appreciably set back this timetable.

The only website that currently has location tools for the 1940 census is the Steve Morse One Step site. There are several such tools there, and it could be overwhelming to figure out which tool to use when. There is a tutorial that attempts to clarify it and an extensive FAQ.

We are announcing the opening of another educational utility to help people learn about the different 1940 locational search tools on the One Step site, and information about the 1940 census itself. It is in the form of a quiz, and should help many, many genealogists quickly learn how to search an unindexed census by location. The new utility is called “How to Access the 1940 Census in One Step“. Not only is it informative, we hope it is entertaining.”

Entertaining it is – at least to those of us passionate about family history! Now you can get started preparing to get the most out of  the 1940 population schedules right away.

There’s another way to prep for the big release. Learn more about the 1940 enumeration process by watching the National Archives YouTube channel’s four short videos created by the US Census Bureau prior to 1940. These films were used to train enumerators on their general duties and responsibilities, as well as the correct procedures for filling out the 1940 census.

Though family historian tend to focus on the population schedule, there were several different schedules created and the films describe the main ones including the population, agriculture, and housing schedules. (Learn more about the various census schedules by listening to Family History: Genealogy Made Easy Episode 10 featuring Curt Witcher.)

You’ll also learn more about the background of the census and the reasons behind the questions that were asked. And it’s the reasons behind the questions that shed even more light on what the priorities were back at that time and clues as to what life was like.

The films also cover the duties of the enumerators, highlighting the three major principles they were instructed to follow: accuracy, complete coverage, and confidential answers.

You can watch the first film, The 1940 Census Introduction here and then check out the 1940 census playlist at the national Archives channel at Youtube.

Read more

Premium Episode 102

Premium_PodcastGenealogy Gems Premium Podcast
Episode 102
Lisa Louise Cooke

Download the Show Notes


Email from Tricia: “First I want to say I love your podcast. I’m an amateur genealogist and family historian and have done research for about two years now and your podcast has definitely helped. So thank you!

I am writing you today because I saw something very interesting on the Katie Couric show.   It was a show about ‘modern families’ and one guest has some interesting tips that I thought you would appreciate.  Bruce Feiler, author of “The Secrets of Happy Families” discussed his plan to a happier modern family.  One key point that he discussed on the show was ‘know your family history’.   He said, “Studies have shown that children who know more about their family histories have greater self-confidence and a sense that they can control their lives.   It was the single biggest predictor of a child’s emotional well-being.”

I thought this was very interesting and gives greater meaning to what we do as family historians.  If children learn that they are decedents from survivors and/or people who have done great things, they will believe that they too can do great things – it is in their blood so to speak.  Imagine if all descendants of George Washington or Abraham Lincoln knew that they were connected to greatness.  Or if they learn that their Great Grandmother survived the depression or a distant Grandfather fought in the American Revolution.  Our past really does help define us but when we don’t how can we really know who we are?

Learning today that knowing our family history really does help the next generation elevates the importance of what we do.  What is a hobby could actually be viewed as a necessity for the sake of our children.  I just had to share …

Lisa’s Thoughts:
Our Family History Lifestyle: We as family historians don’t just want to find ancestors, but we also yearn to learn their stories, and to tell their stories.  We want to understand our place and our family’s place in history. And then, we want to go further – we want to share it with our kids, and our Grandkids.  We are striving to leave a legacy that they can lean on, learn from and that will help all of us feel connected.

Recently, I attended a family wedding in another state. I got an opportunity to spend some time with my best friend from junior high school.  As we curled up on the couch with our hot cocoa, and caught up, we shared what our extended family was up to and what our old friends were doing these days. And I’ve got to tell you, it was sort of depressing.  As we thought about the folks we knew, there was so much disconnect: families split by divorce – often multiple times – children splitting their time between parents, or not even knowing who their dad was. And let’s be honest, there was a lot of drug and alcohol abuse that was destroying not only the abuser, but the family relationships and connections.

Now more than ever, people need to feel connected. And they need role models who can help guide them and give them inspiration.  And the reality is that in today’s world, unfortunately, that’s not always mom or dad.

In my case, I lived through three different divorces by the time I was 18. My parents divorced, they each remarried, and then they each divorced again.  It was a lot of chaos for a kid. But I know I’m not the only one who has dealt with that type of disconnect as a child.

All you have to do is pull out your own family tree and look at it. Now this obviously doesn’t apply to every family, but I think it is far more families than we may realize at first. I know it was eye opening for me.

Try it – pull up your family tree.  Look through the names in the current generation, and then through your parent’s generation (which in my case are the folks born during World War II). You’re going to see divorce, drug abuse, children out of wedlock – not one of those things is a positive healthy way to start a life in my opinion.

But then you go back another generation to your grandparents, and your great grandparents, and I don’t know about you, but I see a lot of intact families.  I know, they weren’t perfect – far from it! And not every marriage was ecstatically happy. But no marriage has ever been perfect.

However, our ancestors, generally, did manage to make it work, and more often than not, stay together. They weathered storms – and survived them, which is of course is the reason why we are here! In my family, there was a lot of stability from my great grandparents on back – far exceeding anything I see in the last two generations.

People often ask me why I got in to family history at such a young age (I was in elementary school.)  But to me the question is really, why did I stick with it?

Grandma was instrumental in my pursuing our family history

Grandma was instrumental in my pursuing our family history

There were several reasons why. However, I’ve come to realize that one of the motivating forces for pursuing my family history (whether I was aware of it at the time or not) was that with all the chaos in my family, I was really intrigued by the idea that there was more to my family than just the family of four I grew up in.  I was thrilled to find out that I’m part of something much bigger. And I discovered that I have plenty of ancestors I can look to who stuck to their vows, practiced their faith, raised their kids and pretty much kept their noses clean.

This means that I can find role models and inspiration throughout my tree that I can draw on and look to. And when I discover their occasional mistakes, it reminds me that everyone is human, and it instills even more empathy and understanding in me for all of our human frailties – which particularly helps put the last few generations in perspective.

The BIG difference I see in the frailties of my distant ancestors, versus my more recent, is how they chose to deal with the mistakes and the problems that life dealt them. I believe our current culture has everything to do with this. Our ancestors, generally, didn’t jump to the idea of divorce. They didn’t worry incessantly if they were “happy” or not – in fact I think they probably spent a lot of time thinking about staying safe, warm, and fed. And that’s not a bad thing.

So in living a family history lifestyle, we are really breaking wide open this family we are a part of, and we can find goodness and inspiration tucked in all kinds of corners that we can draw on – that helps us fill in our own blanks. Maybe a child wants to be an entrepreneur, but their parents were not entrepreneurs. Through family history they can look back through the family tree and say “hey my Great Grandpa started his own hardware store out on the prairie!” That’s a pretty cool thing, and it’s something we can give to our children and grandchildren.

Of course, these are my personal thoughts on family history, but heck it’s my show and that’s one of the perks of having your own show – you get to put out there the way you see it! But I think you get where I’m coming from, and I look forward to continuing to explore this Family History Lifestyle with you, and what it can mean in all of our lives.

GEM: National Preparedness Month – Prepare Your Genealogy!
firefighter_run_300_clr_11079It’s National Preparedness Month in the United States, and for genealogists that means disaster planning for our home archives and family history files. We don’t like to think about the unthinkable: losing our original photos, documents and years’ worth of research in a fire, flood, hurricane or other disaster. But it’s happened in places as high-and-mighty as federal archives here in my country: it can certainly happen in our homes. Even a leaky roof, downed tree, bug infestation, basement mildew issue, theft or other “minor” disaster can mean total annihilation of our family archives if it’s in the wrong place at the wrong time.

Step 1: Assess
What needs protection? Your top priority, as a genealogist, will likely be original photos, documents, artwork and even one-of-a-kind family artifacts like a family Bible. In other words, things that can’t be replaced.

Next, think about things you’d rather not have to replace: records you’ve ordered from repositories; several years’ worth of genealogy notes and files; computerized family trees.

Make yourself a list and work through it (starting with high-priority items) as your time and budget permit.

Step 2: Copy
There’s no true substitute for an original family Bible, but if it’s lost, you at least want to have a copy. Scan your original photos, documents, and other flat artifacts—including the important pages of that Bible. Use whatever scanning device you have handy, like a flatbed or portable scanner or a scanning app like Genius Scan or Scanner Pro. (For more advice on using your iPad or tablet for taking images, check out my book Turn Your iPad into a Genealogy Powerhouse, available in paperback through my website.)

Minimum scanned image size: 300 dpi. Preferably higher (i.e. 600 dpi) as storage permits.

Recommended file format: TIFF files (rather than compressed JPEG files)

Next, photograph dimensional family artifacts like artwork, handicrafts, clothing, military and school memorabilia, etc. Use a regular digital camera or the camera on your phone or tablet/iPad. Make sure you label the photos by using the metadata fields in digital files or by printing them out and captioning them in an album. Consider using the Heirloom Inventory Kit, developed by the folks at Family Tree Magazine, to create an archival record of your artifacts with images, stories and more.

Step 3: Protect
After you’ve duplicated your originals, take steps to preserve them. How exactly you do this depends on what you’re protecting; how much time and money you’re willing to spend; and how you plan to store or display them. The core strategy is to store them in appropriate archival materials away from direct light and extremes in temperature and humidity. No damp basements or hot attics! But what materials constitute safe storage are different for paper items, different types of photos or cloth, and electronic items, so you need to do a little research.

Several resources can help you learn more about giving your family artifacts the protection they need, including:

Preserving Your Family Treasures webpage on working with originals, Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/preservation/family/

Personal Archiving: Preserving Your Digital Memories webpage on working with digital images and documents, Library of Congress http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/personalarchiving/

Heirloom Inventory Kit by Denise May Levenick, available as an eBook or in print (also check out her blog at www.thefamilycurator.com)

Sally Jacobs’ website The Practical Archivist, www.practicalarchivist.com

Guide to Collections Care, a free booklet with top-notch archiving advice you can order through Gaylord, an archival supplier, at their website, www.gaylord.com. (Just search for that title in the keyword search box.)

Step 4: Disseminate
It’s no good to copy your computerized family tree, and then leave that copy on the same computer as the original (or even in the same building). One house fire or theft could easily take out both your original and your backup. Instead, disseminate your copies to at least two additional physical locations.

For electronic data, I definitely recommend cloud storage like Dropbox or iCloud. That immediately gets a copy away from your physical home base, but keeps it accessible to you (and others, if you like) from any location, computer or mobile device.

Also consider distributing copies to fellow relatives or your genealogy buddies, the first because they should have family information anyway and the second because your genealogy buddies will likely take good care of your files. Just make sure those who receive your files don’t all live in the same general area, or again, the same typhoon may destroy all your carefully-distributed copies.

Step 5: Update
Finally, every once in a while you’ll need to update your copies. It may sound unthinkable that someday your PDFs or JPGs won’t be readable, or that your computer won’t have a CD drive. But file formats do eventually become obsolete and storage media do decay or corrupt over time. Keep your ear to the ground, so to speak, so you’ll be aware when major transitions in technology happen. Then update your file formats and storage types. Check your hardware and cloud storage periodically to make sure the files are still in good shape.

GEM: George Morgan on Starting a Genealogy Group
club at workPremium Member Karen asks for pointers on starting a genealogy club at work: “In my case it would be at work, meeting probably monthly or quarterly to talk about tips and tricks, resources, training, brick walls, whatever. I’ve managed a book club at work before, so I imagine it would be pretty similar, but I wondered if there were pluses or pitfalls you can think of that we should look out for.”

In this gem I talk with George Morgan, Vice-President of Membership at the Federation of Genealogical Societies (FGS) to discuss ideas. George is co-host of the Genealogy Guys Podcast along with Drew Smith.


  • €       Provide a bit of structure. Outline some guidelines
  • €       Define a topic for your meeting
  • €       Get the word out on the company bulletin board, newsletter, etc.

Federation of Genealogical Societies (FGS)

  • www.fgs.org
  • Online resources
  • You don’t have to be a member
  • Look under the “Learn” category

Check out:

  • The FGS Wiki
  • FGS Voice Newsletter (free sign up)
  • Society Hall (searchable database)
  • Calendar of events

George’s recommendation for your first topic: How to Get the Most Out of the Census

Additional Free Resources on the subject:

Getting the Most Out of FamilySearch.org and Searching the 1940 Census – On July 12, 2012, Mary Glass presented “Getting the Most Out of FamilySearch.org and Searching the 1940 Census” at the Thursday evening lecture in the West Virginia Archives and History Library in the Culture Center in Charleston.

Census Records by the National Archives

Census Records: Beyond Names and Dates by Ancestry.com

Census Records: Getting the Most Out of Them
by Dan Burrows, Orange County (NY) Genealogical Society

Non-Population Schedules and Special Censuses at Ancestry

Read more

Pin It on Pinterest