What You Can Learn from Richard III DNA “Scandal”

Earliest surviving portrait of Richard III. Wikimedia Commons image.

An article recently published in Nature Communications confirmed the identity of the remains of King Richard III by DNA testing. This result wasn’t a huge surprise, but there were some eyebrow-raising findings along the way. More to the point, now a celebrity case study teaches us more about how to use DNA in family history research.

Prior to the genetic investigation of the skeletal remains presumed to be that of Plantagenet King Richard III, there was already mounting evidence that this was indeed his body. Genetic genealogists can take cues from this research to learn how to more fully integrate your genetic testing into your genealogy.

While these researchers were able to use radiocarbon dating and skeletal analysis methods that most of us won’t have access to, they did pore over a substantial amount of historical evidence to substantiate the last known whereabouts of Richard III. The archaeological, skeletal, and historical evidence were overwhelmingly in favor of this positive identification. But it was the genetic evidence that provided the last, ahem, nail in the coffin.

In this case the nail was made of mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA. King Richard shares his mtDNA with anyone who is also related in a direct maternal line to his mother. There were two such candidates found, both sharing mtDNA with the skeleton presumed to be King Richard, thus further verifying its identity. In fact, lead researcher Turi King said of the findings, “If you put all the data together, the evidence is overwhelming that these are the remains of Richard III.”

Of interesting note to us as genetic genealogists is that one of the two mtDNA samples used for reference did have one difference from the mtDNA signature shared by the other individual and the skeleton. This did not jeopardize the integrity of the results, but rather provided a good case study in how DNA does change over time.

You would think that the DNA match confirming the identity of the skeleton would be the biggest news out of this round of DNA testing. But along with the direct maternal line testing, there was also direct paternal line testing to try to verify the paternal line of the skeleton.

Genealogists worked tirelessly to identify direct paternal descendants of Richard III’s great-great grandfather Edward III and five were found and tested. Their results revealed not one but THREE different paternal lines.

While the results were not quite as expected, they weren’t exactly unexpected either, as there are plenty of royal rumors of non-paternity (click here for a summary). Watch a brief video discussion of the yDNA results here:

Again, the YDNA portion of the study provides a great case study for us in how to use YDNA, namely that it takes a lot of traditional genealogical work to find direct paternal line descendants to be tested, and that the results are conclusive, but can sometimes provide more questions than answers.

The Richard III DNA drama has started many families talking about “doing” their own DNA. Learn how with my series of quick guides (purchase all 4 laminated guides or the digital download bundle for the best deal);

Visit my website to learn about expert consultations with me. You’ll get customized guidance on which tests to order and how to maximize your results for your genealogy research.

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No More Whining About Brick Walls: King Richard III Remains Found

Just when we throw up our hands in frustration and declare that we will never find a particular ancestor, someone comes along and proves it possible.

King_Richard_III

King_Richard_III

Reuters is reporting that England’s King Richard III has been found after 500 years. “A skeleton with a cleaved skull and a curved spine entombed under a car park is that of Richard III, archaeologists said on Monday, solving a 500-year-old mystery about the final resting place of the last English king to die in battle…In one of the most significant archaeological finds of recent English history, a team from the University of Leicester said evidence showed a skeleton found last year in excavations of a mediaeval friary under a city car park was that of Richard.”

The physical evidence is compelling: The skeleton possesses a curved spine (which Shakespeare mocked him for), and multiple wounds attributed to battle.

Researchers at the University of Leicester sought to confirm the theory through DNA testing which included extracting DNA from the teeth and a bone for comparison with Michael Ibsen, a modern-day descendant of Richard III’s sister Anne of York. The results: A Match.

“The DNA remains points to these being the remains of Richard III,” University of Leicester genetics expert Turi King said during a press briefing.

The  lesson is not that we as genealgoists need to start digging up parking lots, but rather “never give up, never surrender.” And where there is evidence, seek indisputable proof.

To learn more about the role that DNA played in this amazing discovery watch these videos
The Search for King Richard III – The Genealogy

The Search for King Richard III Identifying the Remains (Dr. Turi King)

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Premium Episode 112 – Tech Talk and Solutions

Genealogy Gems Premium Membership and Podcast

Download the show notes

In this episode we’ll be enjoying some tech talk and exploring solutions. After we chat in the Mailbox segment, you’ll hear my interview with Devin Ashby of FamilySearch. We’ll be talking about some innovative ways to use some of the newest technologies for genealogy including a little known feature in Facebook that could do wonders for your family history. And you’ll hear from Your DNA Guide here at Genealogy Gems, Diahan Southard about some of the latest happenings in the world of DNA.

NEWS:
Who Do You Think You Are? season five (and second on TLC) will feature six popular celebrities from TV and film. The Wrap just posted an article announcing the following:

  • Valerie Bertinelli (a personal fave of mine from childhood days on One Day At a Time to Hot in Cleveland)
  • Jesse Tyler Ferguson (ABC’s Modern Family)
  • Lauren Graham (Wonderful in Gilmore Girls, and currently starring in NBC’s Parenthood)
  • Kelsey Grammer (best known for Cheers and Frasier )
  • Rachel McAdams (known for movies such as Mean Girls, The Notebook) and her sister, Kayleen McAdams.
  • Cynthia Nixon (HBO’s Sex in the City)  Watch sneak peek

Most family historians devoured the previous seasons, but if you missed any there is good news: TLC has been said to have acquired ten episodes from the show’s previous NBC seasons. You can look forward to episodes featuring:

  • Matthew Broderick
  • Lisa Kudrow(listen to Lisa talk about her episode and the series in Genealogy Gems Podcast episode 81 and Premium members can hear exclusive audio in Genealogy Gems Premium episode 41
  • Rob Lowe
  • Reba McEntire
  • Tim McGraw
  • Gwyneth Paltrow
  • Sarah Jessica Parker
  • Brooke Shields
  • Vanessa Williams (also featured in Genealogy Gems Podcast episode 63)
  • Rita Wilson

Set Your DVR: Who Do You Think You Are? Season 5 begins Wednesday, July 23 at 9/8c.

Mailbox question from Beginning Genealogist

MAILBOX

From Dolphe:
I’m a new listener and have just became a premium member. I’ve downloaded all your Premium Pod casts and have found the things you discuss and teach a great blessing to me and my work.

I listened to the Premium Pod casts 1,2, &3 and was intrigued by the WPA lessons. FDR was discussed and thought you might be interested that he was a member of the Holland Society of New York and was a mover and shaker in it. He was an avid genealogist. Below is how you become a member of the HSNY _

“To become a member of the HSNY you need to be a direct descendent of a person that came from the Netherlands and was in New Netherlands prior to

“You may be eligible to become a member if you are a descendant in the direct male line of an ancestor who lived in New Netherland before or during 1675. New Netherland ancestry is of many national origins, as evidenced by our most recently researched list of eligible Surnames on this page. Proven family lineages may facilitate an easier application process as many ancestor-linked requirements have already been satisfied. When applying for membership by way of proven lineage a Legacy application process is available, herein.”

From Debra:
I just finished the dishes as I listened to one of the latest podcasts! Oh my gosh, with each podcast that I listen to, I am not only inspired but so eager to continue my research. You so wonderfully continue to give us new ideas and all of the latest that is available. Thank you so much!

Question: My husband is faced with the daunting task of disposing of his parent’s belongings. His parents at age 92 and 86 have things that go way back!! We live in Tennessee and his parents lived in Texas so that in itself is a real chore to have to make numerous trips back and forth. My husband is so eager to get all of this finished but I am concerned that he will overlook or not be aware of any items that should be kept for his family history. I continue to work on researching his side of the family. I know that we should keep certain documents: birth certificates, marriage licenses, definitely old photographs, etc. but I fear that there are items that I might not think about as being important. Might you offer some suggestions for us and if there is a podcast where you have already addressed this then please direct me to that.

A fun tidbit: My family lived in Southern Indiana; many were early pioneers. Family stories have been passed down about our family’s connections to Abraham Lincoln’s family who lived in Southern Indiana between 1813 and 1830. I recently discovered a very old book that has to do with what was called “The Lincoln Inquiry’. The book I am referring to is titled “The Missing Chapter in the Life of Abraham Lincoln” written in 1938. It seems that a huge number of people wanted to prove their connection to the Lincoln’s, and to make it known that Lincoln’s early years in Southern Indiana did indeed have an impact on his life and the man he became. I was delighted to see that my 4th great Uncle Judge Zachariah Skelton was named in this book in the section having to do with the Lincoln Inquiry and that my Indiana Skelton ancestors did indeed know the Thomas Lincoln family! Such fun! Lisa, again thanks for all you do.

Lisa’s reply:
I’m so glad you are enjoying the podcast! I sympathize with your concern about overlooking things. When my Grandpa died I was pregnant with my last child and unable to go back and help clear out the house. I worried too about things being tossed without realizing they were important.

One area is bills & receipts – a lot of folks (like my Grandmother) kept receipts from way back. While on the surface they seemed prime to toss, I actually retraced their steps and homes through the 1940s and 1950s based on the addresses written on the receipts!

Paperwork is often the area we itch to toss, but old envelopes and letters from others can provide many clues. I also gently shake all old books before giving them away because more than once a special tidbit has fallen out that proved valuable.

In Genealogy Gems Podcast episode 39 I tell the story of one of the most significant finds in my family that almost got tossed out. But Grandmother was tapping me on the shoulder, prodding me to look further before wrapping things up – and boy am I glad that I did! If folks in your family think you are being too persnickety about not over looking things, place that segment of the show for them, or tell them the story.

Ann in Ottawa:
I’ve just joined Genealogy Gems and watched your video on Evernote. I’ve been using it but just touching the surface. Once again you’ve inspired me and have also probably saved me weeks of transcribing.

When I first started my genealogy research I had a desktop computer – no laptop and certainly no tablet or smart phone at that time. Now of course I have all the toys. Setting off to Family History Centres, historical societies, etc, I dutifully transcribed a lot of records pertaining to my ancestors, into my research notebook. I saved images on USB flash drives when I could but this wasn’t always possible.

It’s a hard cover notebook and as I was not particularly organized, just enthusiastic, I wrote out what I found but have lots of families mixed up, from both sides of the family. I just entered sequentially whatever I found.

Well, now that you’ve taught me a lot more about maximizing Evernote, I decided to try using my phone (which has Evernote) to take pictures of those transcribed records. On my phone I used the camera version of Evernote and simply created a note from a photo of a desired transcription. Now, I don’t have to re-type everything. I re-name the note using my file naming convention and voila – there it is.

This is pure magic and what would take quite a long time to type and file, is done in seconds.

The only problem is with each bout of renewed enthusiasm and new discoveries I move around less and use the computer more. If you have suggestions about how keen genealogists need not sacrifice fitness, I’m all ears.

From Pete:
I’m having trouble getting the Premium podcast on my iPhone or iPad?
Any thoughts? Don’t rule out me having a senior moment. Thank you and Love your work!

Lisa’s Reply:
We’re here to help! Here are the instructions from the website (Sign in at www.GenealogyGems > hover mouse over PREMIUM > click PREMIUM EPISODES > click on the mobile platform you need

If your device is set to only use wifi to download, you might need to “Enable” the download queue.

Apple’s Podcasts App doesn’t (currently) support paid subscription feeds, though many iPhone users are anxious for it.

Try this, and if you have any problems please let us know. 99% of the time, any problems are due to extra spaces or incorrect capitalization of the feed address or the user name / password.

From Kelli:
I created my own blog when I taught the class several years ago that never went very far BUT I have had success with a Facebook page.  Our family recently lost an avid genealogist aunt.  She died this spring at a 102.  At her funeral, those of us interested in genealogy realized we didn’t want her legacy lost, so I came home and created a family Facebook page.  It is private, but so far we have 56 “cousins” who are part of the group.  Although everyone doesn’t comment or share, I feel we are carrying on information to the “young ones” so they will know/understand/remember the stories of the “old ones” and realize where we all came from. The stories and pictures are as close as a click.  My dad is the youngest of 10 children and I have cousins as old as he is that I have never met.  We are meeting and getting acquainted virtually!

Devin Ashby FamilySearchGEM: Interview with Devin Ashby of FamilySearch at RootsTech 2014

  • Google Glass
  • Facebook Graph Search – use quotation marks in the search box
  • What drives him to think outside the box

GEM: Your DNA Guide: King Richard III
DiahanSouthard genetic genealogywith Diahan Southard

Michael Ibsen, a cabinet maker living in London, was recently awarded the title of “royal descendant” when researchers identified him as a direct maternal descendant of Ann of York. Why did this lucky man have an unsolicited team of researchers filling in 17 generations of his genealogy?

They were trying to identify a body.

A body discovered under a parking lot in Leichester, England.

According to an article in the Mail Online, thanks to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Ibsen, that body has been identified as Richard the III. Researchers needed Ibsen because his mtDNA is EXACTLY the same as his 17th great grandmother, Ann of York.   Because mothers pass their mtDNA to all of their children, and only the daughters pass it on to the next generation, Ann had exactly the same mtDNA as her brother, Richard.

With the positive identification in hand, researchers are now prepared to undertake a  £100,000 project to discover the combination of letters in a four-digit code that makes up the genetic book that is (or was) Richard III.  This process is called full genome sequencing. They are also planning to sequence Mr. Ibsen’s genome to see what shared segments may still remain.

DNA and genealogyWhat does this project have to do with you?
So what does this project have to do with you the genealogist who doesn’t have a team of researchers hammering out your 17th generation grandparents?

First, it is a win for genetic genealogy as mtDNA was used to unequivocally link past and future generations. Each story like this serves to increase awareness for genetic genealogy, which means more people get tested, which means databases grow larger, which means you will find more matches, which means you will have more genealogical success. Plus, the comparison of the ancient Richard the III genome with the modern genome of Mr. Ibsen will be the first of its kind to try to identify shared segments of DNA after so many generations.

In a recent interview Michael Ibsen said, “I almost hope somewhere along the line they dig up some more people so others can be ancestors and descendants in the same sort of way. It is going to be an extraordinary experience.”

Someone needs to introduce Mr. Ibsen to genetic genealogy as that is EXACTLY what genetic genealogy is all about-but minus the digging up the bones part! Genetic genealogy is all about using the DNA of living people to reconstruct the DNA of your ancestors. It is about making connections among modern day genealogists that can help them answer questions about their relatives.

While a full genome sequence is not a practical genealogical tool for most genealogists, there are other kids of DNA tests that could help you answer  genealogical questions.

You can find more information about a few famous people and their DNA here.

And learn even more by reading MNT’s article 3D model provides new insight into King Richard III’s spinal condition. 

And don’t miss Lisa’s interview with Dr. Turi King (image: Lisa and Turi at Who Do You Think You Are? in London) who ran the DNA testing on King Richard III. Listen to Genealogy Gems Podcast episode 152 now.

DNA for Genealogy Quick Reference Guide Bundle by Diahan SouthardDNA Quick Guides
Getting Started & YDNA Bundle
By Diahan Southard

Save approx.17% over individual retail
Click here to order

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What Mitochondrial DNA and a King have to do with You

Michael Ibsen, a cabinet maker living in London, was recently awarded the title of “royal descendant” when researchers identified him as a direct maternal descendant of Ann of York. Why did this lucky man have an unsolicited team of researchers filling in 17 generations of his genealogy?DNA and Genealogy

They were trying to identify a body.

A body discovered under a parking lot in Leichester, England.

According to an article in the Mail Online, thanks to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Ibsen, that body has been identified as Richard the III. Researchers needed Ibsen because his mtDNA is EXACTLY the same as his 17th great grandmother, Ann of York.   Because mothers pass their mtDNA to all of their children, and only the daughters pass it on to the next generation, Ann had exactly the same mtDNA as her brother, Richard.

With the positive identification in hand, researchers are now prepared to undertake a  £100,000 project to discover the combination of letters in a four-digit code that makes up the genetic book that is (or was) Richard III.  This process is called full genome sequencing. They are also planning to sequence Mr. Ibsen’s genome to see what shared segments may still remain.

What does this project have to do with you?
DNA and genealogy
So what does this project have to do with you the genealogist who doesn’t have a team of researchers hammering out your 17th generation grandparents?

First, it is a win for genetic genealogy as mtDNA was used to unequivocally link past and future generations. Each story like this serves to increase buy soma medication online awareness for genetic genealogy, which means more people get tested, which means databases grow larger, which means you will find more matches, which means you will have more genealogical success. Plus, the comparison of the ancient Richard the III genome with the modern genome of Mr. Ibsen will be the first of its kind to try to identify shared segments of DNA after so many generations.

In a recent interview Michael Ibsen said, “I almost hope somewhere along the line they dig up some more people so others can be ancestors and descendants in the same sort of way. It is going to be an extraordinary experience.”

Someone needs to introduce Mr. Ibsen to genetic genealogy as that is EXACTLY what genetic genealogy is all about-but minus the digging up the bones part! Genetic genealogy is all about using the DNA of living people to reconstruct the DNA of your ancestors. It is about making connections among modern day genealogists that can help them answer questions about their relatives.

While a full genome sequence is not a practical genealogical tool for most genealogists, there are other kids of DNA tests that could help you answer  genealogical questions.

You can find more information about a few famous people and their DNA here.Dr. Turi King and Genealogist Lisa Louise Cooke

And learn even more by reading MNT’s article 3D model provides new insight into King Richard III’s spinal condition.

And don’t miss Lisa’s interview with Dr. Turi King who ran the DNA testing on King Richard III. Listen to Genealogy Gems Podcast episode 152 now.

Genealogy Gems Podcast and Family History

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Premium Episode 96 – Historic Maps, and Evernote, and Free Translation

Date Published: February 27, 2013

Click here to download the Show Notes pdf

NEWS:

Historic Newspapers

Imagine the thrill of pulling up a page on from an old newspaper on your computer screen and seeing your ancestor’s name in print. It’s an event any genealogist would enjoy (and the reason I wrote the book How to Find Your Family History in Newspapers.)

Findmypast.com just made the possibility of that happening a little more likely by adding more than 6 million pages from British newspapers to its subscription website. Read more about it here:

Finding Your Family History in Newspapers Just Got a Little More Likely

Record Your Stories and Help the American Widow Project

An estimated 3200 military wives have lost their husbands in Afghanistan and Iraq. Though nothing can ever truly make up for their loss, a nonprofit organization called the American Widow Project (AWP) offers them support as they rebuild their lives. Now the website Saving Memories Forever,is contributing to the cause.

The AWP and Saving Memories Forever share a common interest: keeping alive the memories and stories of American soldiers, husbands and oftentimes fathers. The AWP hosts a hotline, puts out a monthly newsletter and holds events where widows can come together to enjoy life and heal by sharing stories, tears and laughter. Saving Memories Forever helps people audio-record, save and share their memories in a secure online archive.

Saving Memories Forever has donated 20 premium subscriptions to the AWP. In addition, from now through the end of March, the AWP will receive 40% of the profits from new subscribers who use the special promo code AWP213. If you’re interested in capturing, preserving and sharing oral histories, take a look at Saving Memories Forever.  Read more about it here..

Evernote 5 for Mac is Here

Find out what’s new here…

New Keyboard shortcuts:

CMD-J: Jump to a notebook from anywhere in the application

CMD-Shift-A: Jump to All Notes

CMD-Option-(1-5): Switch to main sidebar sections (Notes, Notebooks, etc)

CMD-(1-9): Jump to Shortcuts

CMD-L: Edit current note title

CMD-’: Edit current note tags

CMD-]: Indent text

ATLAS:
Place Cards
Atlas is a brand new way to visually explore your notes in Evernote. Evernote helps you remember where you were when you took notes to help you have richer, more vibrant memories. Evernote Atlas reads the location where your notes were created and intelligently presents them to you on Place Cards based upon their proximity to each other.

Map view
Click on any card to see flags with numbers representing all the notes in that location. Pan and zoom to see more or fewer notes then click on a flag to see the associated notes. To see notes created near your current location, click the compass icon.

SMARTER SEARCH:
TypeAhead search suggestions
With TypeAhead suggestions, Evernote’s Search is more powerful than ever. It completes your thoughts based on the words and phrases you personally use frequently in Evernote.

Search Joined Notebooks
Search results now show notes both from all personal as well as Joined Notebooks at the same time.

Saved Searches can be Shortcuts
You can drag Saved Searches from the search menu into your Shortcuts for easier access

More search options
Click into the Search field for a variety of search options. You can search all your notes or click the Notebook capsule to search just those in the Notebook you were last viewing. If a notebook or tag matches your search, selecting a match adds search tokens that you can click on and modify later if desired. Below those, your five most recent searches are stored and shown in a selectable list.

New Evernote for Mac guide
The new product guide highlights the core features of Evernote and walks you through details of how to use them.

GEM: No More Whining About Brick Walls – King Richard III Remains Found

Just when we throw up our hands in frustration and declare that we will never find a particular ancestor, someone comes along and proves it possible.

Reuters is reporting that England’s King Richard III has been found after 500 years. “A skeleton with a cleaved skull and a curved spine entombed under a car park is that of Richard III…”

“The DNA remains points to these being the remains of Richard III,” University of Leicester genetics expert Turi King said during a press briefing.

The lesson is not that we as genealogists need to start digging up parking lots, but rather “never give up, never surrender.” And where there is evidence, seek indisputable proof.

To learn more about the role that DNA played in this amazing discovery watch the videos at the Genealogy Gems Blog

Stay tuned for my interview with Dr. Turi King in an upcoming episode!

MAILBOX:

From Clytee:
“My maiden name surname – “Kleager”.  After 30 years of trying to figure out where my immigrant ancestor came to Franklin County, Missouri from , I have finally broken through the brick wall. Once I got there, it is a beautiful view – I am discovering all kinds of wonderful information and stories on the other side and the information is coming fast.  I have now tentatively linked to a 13 times great grandfather!…

…I just keep hunting on-line, and I have made a contact with a man who has a museum (or maybe local history society of some sort, I can’t exactly tell) in Kaltbrunn, and he sent me as a Christmas present (how nice was that?) a recently published local history of Kaltbrunn.  It’s a beautiful book, and I was so touched he did that. Problem is, of course, it’s in German and I want to read the whole thing cover to cover.

Do you have any other ideas about how I could put scanned images of the book into Google translate, or another way to get my computer to translate it?

From your encouragement, I started a blog a couple of years ago (Kleager-Klaeger-Kleger.blogspot.com) that has been very helpful in finding relatives.  I am also trying to share my information as I’m finding it and it has been well received.”

Lisa’s Answer:
Regarding translating the German pages, I think I may have a solution for you. What you need is a program that can apply OCR technology to your scanned document, and then translate German (rather than English which most programs do.)

Try Free Online OCR at http://www.free-ocr.com/

Free-OCR.com is a free online OCR (Optical Character Recognition) tool. You can use this service to extract text from any image you supply. This service is free, no registration necessary.

Just upload your image files. Free-OCR takes either a JPG, GIF, TIFF BMP or PDF (only first page).

The only restriction is that the images must not be larger than 2MB, no wider or higher than 5000 pixels and there is a limit of 10 image uploads per hour.

The beauty is that it can handle German!  Once you get a German text, you should be able to run that text through Google Translate.  German to English.

Congratulations on the blog and the success it has brought you in making such wonderful connections!

From Aileen:
“I cannot seem to figure out how to gain access to premium podcast through iTunes and or through an iPhone app. I listen to regular podcast on podcast app. I tried following instructions in show notes for Mac users but said invalid address. Also tried the link to download app to get on mobile device (the one from another listener) but that was only for android. Do you have any other suggestions?”

Lisa’s Answer:
On the iPhone or iPad try this method:

  1. Download the RSSRadio App (free iPhone app in iTunes – will work on iPad as well)
  2. Select Add a Podcast
  3. Select “More”
  4. Select “Enter the URL Manually”
  5. Enter this URL:  https://lisalouisecooke.com/Premium_Feed/feed.xml (this is case sensitive, and be sure not to get http:// in there twice)
  6. Enter or “Go” on the keyboard
  7. Enter Premium Membership username  and password (again this is case sensitive, so be careful, particularly if the first letter of your username is lower case because your device will try to capitalize it. Just press the shift key before you start typing so you get a lower case letter)

The iTunes feed works, but again everything is case sensitive. I’m guessing that might be the problem.

GEM: Blending Evernote with your Genealogy Database

Sue wrote:
“What is your process for moving these images, screenshots, etc. to your genealogy family history files on your computer? I’m not a super tech, and I’m at a loss as to how I would go about that. Thanks for all your great information; I’ve been a listener since the beginning.”

Lisa’s Answer:
For now, the easiest way to add them is to use the “Share” feature and copy and paste the unique Evernote URL address for the note into your database. That way it takes up very little space, but the information is just one click away.  The idea here is that Evernote is a linked “holding tank” of tons of great back up info for your database, without having to load everything into your database. This is particularly useful, because it means you always are accessing the most current version of the note. If you save it to your database (as described below), now you have two versions – one in Evernote and one in your database, and they will not synchronize.

You can also right click on images saved in Evernote and save them to your computer, so that you can then add the picture itself to your database.

GEM: Online Historic Maps

American Memory Map Collections at the Library of Congress

British Library

Hargrett Rare Book & Manuscript Library

National Library of Australia

Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection

Visual Collections (including the David Rumsey Collection)

David Rumsey’s site 

Download the complete Online Historic Maps PDF cheat sheet

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